British Royal Artillery manning the cannons of Edinburgh castle during the Jacobite uprising of 1745. By the end of the year the whole of Scotland had fallen to the resurgent Stuarts, except for the castle. The efforts of the British government to improve the castle’s defences in the 1730s had clearly been successful – attempts to surround and starve out the defenders failed, and it actually held out until Edinburgh was retaken by British forces in 1746. 

I only know about this because of watching Outlander with my wife.